Pennantia baylisiana


Pennantia: after Pennant, a zoologist

Common Name(s)

Three Kings Kaikomako

Current Conservation Status

2012 - Threatened - Nationally Critical

Conservation status of New Zealand indigenous vascular plants, 2012
The conservation status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2012 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS). This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2009 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, Paul D. Champion, Shannel P. Courtney, Peter B. Heenan, John W. Barkla, Ewen K. Cameron, David A. Norton and Rodney A. Hitchmough. File size: 792KB

Previous Conservation Status

2009 - Threatened - Nationally Critical
2004 - Threatened - Nationally Critical


2012 - CD, IE, OL
2009 - CD, OL, IE


Pennantia baylisiana (W.R.B.Oliv.) G.T.S.Baylis



Brief Description

Rare multi-trunked small tree bearing very large broad glossy curled leaves inhabiting the three Kings Islands. Leaves 120-160mm long, widest towards tip. Flowers small, green, in clusters along branches. Fruit purple, 10mm long, containing a single seed.

Flora Category

Vascular - Native

Structural Class

Dicotyledonous Trees & Shrubs


Plectomirtha baylisiana W.R.B.Oliv.


Endemic to Great (Manawa Tawhi) Island, Three Kings Island group.


Coastal Forest.


Sturdy, multi-trunked tree 5-8 x 4 m tall. Bark greyish, tessellated. Young branches and branchlets lenticellate. Petiole 25 mm long. Leaves subcoriaceous, glabrescent, 120-160 x 70 -100 mm, oblong to obovate, in exposed conditions distinctly recurved, otherwise flat, margins entire, apex obtuse, rounded, or slightly emarginate; base cuneate to obtuse; lateral veins of underside subtended by axillary hairy, pocket-domatium. Inflorescence usually ramiflorous or cauliflorous, rarely terminal, 80-120 x 40-120 mm. Male flowers unknown. Female flowers 1.5 x 1.5 mm, petals 2.6 mm, greenish white, stamen filaments in bud kinked sideways, straightening at anthesis, 1.5 mm long; anther 1-1.4 mm, pollen usually malformed and sterile. Ovary barrel shaped, 2.8 x 2 mm; stigmatic ring 1.5-1.8 mm diam., crested into 3 triangular plates. Fruit ellipsoidal, 10 x 4.5 mm, flesh purple; stone 9 x 3.5 mm.

Similar Taxa

Morphologically similar to the Norfolk Island Pennantia endlicheri Reissek from which it differs by multi-trunked growth habit, the recurved leaves of exposed branchlets, and mainly ramiflorous or cauliflorous flowering habit. DNA sequences further separate both species. Kaikomako (Pennantia corymbosa J.R. Forest et G.Forst.) differs from both these species by its divaricating juvenile form, much smaller and distinctly toothed or lobed adult foliage.



Flower Colours



Fruiting occurs between January and April in cultivated material. Ripe fruit has been seen in the wild during February and March

Propagation Technique

Easily grown from seed, when viable non hybrid seed is available. Though the only known tree is functionally female, occasional viable fruit is now known to be produced both in the wild and in cultivation. However, if pure seed is desired, plants should grown well away from kaikomako (P. corymbosa) otherwise hybrid seed will be produced. This tree can also be grown from cuttings and basal portions of new stem stuckers. Neither media is easy to strike, and so until recently, this species was rarely seen in cultivation.


Only one tree occurs in the wild. Initially P. baylisiana and indeed all other Three Kings endemic plants were at serious risk from goats. These were successfully eradicated in 1946. Since then the tree has persisted despite periodic storm and drought damage which may kill entire trunks. However, being female the tree was until recently considered functionally extinct. Apparently viable fruits were first found in the wild in 1989, and these, along with fruiting cutting grown plants in New Zealand provide one source of securing the species. However, until such time as more trees occur in the wild, P. baylisiana remains seriously at risk of extinction through natural events such as storms or senescence through old age.

Chromosome No.

2n = 50

Endemic Taxon


Endemic Genus


Endemic Family


Fact Sheet Citation

Please cite as:  de Lange, P.J. (Year at time of Access): Pennantia baylisana Fact Sheet (content continuously updated). New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. http://nzpcn.org.nz/flora_details.aspx?ID=32   (Date website was queried)



Fact Sheet prepared for NZPCN by P.J. de Lange 1 October 2003. Description from Gardner & de Lange (2002) - see also de Lange et al. (2010)

References and further reading

de Lange, P.J.; Heenan, P.B.; Norton, D.A.; Rolfe, J.R.; Sawyer, J.W.D. 2010: Threatened Plants of New Zealand. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch.

Gardner, R.O.; de Lange, P.J. 2002: Revision of Pennantia (Icacinaceae), a small isolated genus of Southern Hemisphere trees. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 32: 669-695.

This page last updated on 20 Sep 2019