Species

Pinus nigra subsp. nigra

Etymology

nigra: black

Common Name(s)

black pine

Authority

Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold subsp. nigra

Family

Pinaceae

Flora Category

Vascular - Exotic

Structural Class

Gymnosperm Trees & Shrubs

Habitat

Terrestrial.. mainly shrubland and grassland.

Features

Tall tree to 40 m with open-branching habit. The dark brown bark is fissured and forms scaly plates. The needles held in pairs and up to 19 cm long, are stiff, pointed, and grooved on the opposing sides of the pair. Male and female flowers arise in clusters on the branch tips in late spring. Mature female cones arise singly or in whorls of two to four, 8 by 3 cm.

Similar Taxa

Long dark green needles held in pairs, small cones that are shed annually. No spikes on cone scales. Subsp. laricio has less dense foliage and more flexible leaves than subsp nigra, but the two subspecies can be difficult to distinguish.

Flower Colours

No Flowers

Year Naturalised

1925

Origin

Pyrenees to the Balkan Peninsula and Crimea - introduced from various parts of its range.

Reason For Introduction
Forestry

Seed
Seeds short-lived in soil bank (Atkinson 1997).

Dispersal
Seeds dispersed by wind (Atkinson 1997).

Tolerances
Requires low soil fertility (Atkinson 1997). Tolerant of smoke and air pollution (Salmon 2000).

This page last updated on 18 Feb 2010