Species

Dichelachne micrantha

Etymology

Dichelachne: two-pronged and woolly
micrantha: tiny flower

Common Name(s)

purple plume grass

Current Conservation Status

2012 - Threatened - Nationally Vulnerable

Conservation status of New Zealand indigenous vascular plants, 2012
The conservation status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2012 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS). This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2009 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, Paul D. Champion, Shannel P. Courtney, Peter B. Heenan, John W. Barkla, Ewen K. Cameron, David A. Norton and Rodney A. Hitchmough. File size: 792KB

Previous Conservation Status

2009 - Threatened - Nationally Vulnerable
2004 - Not Threatened

Qualifiers

2012 - DP, SO, Sp
2009 - DP, SO, Sp

Authority

Dichelachne micrantha (Cav.) Domin

Family

Poaceae

Flora Category

Vascular - Native

NVS Species Code

DICMIC

The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.

Structural Class

Grasses

Synonyms

Stipa micrantha Cav., Agrostis sciurea R.Br., Dichelachne sciurea (R.Br.) Hook.f., D. crinita var. intermedia Hack.

Distribution

Indigenous. Local from Three Kings Islands, and Te Paki south to about Auckland. Also around East Cape and the eastern Wairarapa (northern Aorangi Range). never very common. Outside New Zealand common on Norfolk Island, also known from Australia, New Guinea and Easter Island.

Habitat

Coastal to lowland. Usually in open shrubland, on clay pans or within open grassland. Often on cliff faces, amongst talus, on lava fields on at the back of boulder beaches. Fast becoming scarce.

Features

Stout, rigid, tufted grass with leaves rigid, shorter than the stiffly erect culms. Branching extravaginal. Leaf-sheath straw-coloured often lined with purple or dull brown, with minute, appressed, scattered hairs. Ligule 0.3-1.0 mm long, membranous, truncate, minutely ciliate, undersides scabrid, often asymmetric. Leaf-blade to 200 x 1.5-2.5 mm, stiff, flat, tapered towards apex, undersides sparingly and minutely scabrid, upper surface scabrid on ribs towards apex, minutely scabrid on margins. Culm 0.4-1.0 m, internodes minutely scaberulous throughout, or glabrous but minutely scaberulous below panicle, variously purplish. Panicle 100-250 mm, erect, spicate, often purplish (or tinged with red), branches spreading at first; rachis, branchlets and pedicels closely short-scabrid. Spikelets numerous, close-set on branchlets, delicate. Glumes narrow-lanceolate, acute to acuminate, often suffused with purple or red; lower 3-4 mm long, more or less equivalent in length to lemma, upper 3.5-5.0 mm, greater than lemma. Lemma 2.5-4.0 mm long, sometimes purplish; awn 12-18 mm, very fine, column straight, awn curving above and twisted 2-3 times along whole length, inserted 0.6-0.9 mm below minutely bifid lemma-tip. Palea 2-3 mm long, narrow-linear, keels scabrid above, apex ciliate. Callus hairs 0.3-0.5 mm long. Rachilla prolongation c.0.05 mm long. Lodicules 0.4-0.8 mm long, hyaline, elliptic-oblong, unequally bilobed, sometimes minutely ciliate. Anthers 1, 1.2-1.4 mm long in open flowers, 0.6-0.8 mm long in cleistogamous flowers. Seed 2.0-2.3 x 0.3-0.4 mm.

Similar Taxa

Most frequently confused with Dichelachne rara (R.Br.) Vickery an eastern Australia species which is now widely naturalised in the North Island and northern South Island. Dichelachne rara differs from D. micrantha by its usually smaller, narrower panicles, and by the lower glume which is usually greater than rather than shorter than 4 mm long, and obviously much larger than rather than more or less equal in length to the lemma.

Flowering

September - January

Fruiting

October - May

Propagation Technique

Easy from fresh seed. Rather short-lived, self sowing readily, and in gardens can be invasive. Does best in dry, open, clay soils.

Threats

Dichelachne micrantha was formerly widespread but over the last 20 years or so its range has contracted considerably. Partly this is due to the progressive loss of the open, coastal shrublands and clay pans it favours, as these give way to taller mature vegetation but mostly it seems to be due to the ever increasing numbers of naturalised plants which are now occupying its favoured habitats. It has been observed that in many of the places it was formerly common, these places are now dominated by D. rara, which appears to be expanding its range, and is certainly increasing in abundance.

Chromosome No.

2n = 70

Endemic Taxon

No

Endemic Genus

No

Endemic Family

No

Life Cycle and Dispersal

Florets are wind dispersed (Thorsen et al., 2009).

Where To Buy

Not commercially available.

Attribution

Description modified from Edgar and Connor (2000)

References and further reading

Edgar, E.; Connor, H.E. 2000: Flora of New Zealand. Vol. V. Grasses. Christchurch, Manaaki Whenua Press. 650 pp.

Thorsen, M. J.; Dickinson, K. J. M.; Seddon, P. J. 2009. Seed dispersal systems in the New Zealand flora. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 11: 285-309

This page last updated on 11 Aug 2014