Species

Parablechnum procerum

Etymology

procerum: long; from the Latin procerus

Common Name(s)

small kiokio

Current Conservation Status

2012 - Not Threatened

Conservation status of New Zealand indigenous vascular plants, 2012
The conservation status of all known New Zealand vascular plant taxa at the rank of species and below were reassessed in 2012 using the New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS). This report includes a statistical summary and brief notes on changes since 2009 and replaces all previous NZTCS lists for vascular plants. Authors: Peter J. de Lange, Jeremy R. Rolfe, Paul D. Champion, Shannel P. Courtney, Peter B. Heenan, John W. Barkla, Ewen K. Cameron, David A. Norton and Rodney A. Hitchmough. File size: 792KB

Previous Conservation Status

2009 - Not Threatened
2004 - Not Threatened

Authority

Parablechnum procerum (G.Forst.) C.Presl

Family

Blechnaceae

Flora Category

Vascular - Native

NVS Species Code

BLEPRO

The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database.

Structural Class

Ferns

Synonyms

Blechnum minus sensu Allan (1961); Stegania procera (G.Forst.) R.Br.; Onoclea procera (G.Forst.) Spreng.; Osmunda procera G.Forst.; Lomaria duplicata Potts; Lomaria latifolia Colenso; Lomaria procera (G.Forst.) Spreng.; Asplenium procerum (G.Forst.) Bernh.; Blechnopteris procera (G.Forst.) Trevis; Blechnum minus sensu Allan; Blechnum procerum (G.Forst.) Sw.

Distribution

Endemic. New Zealand: North, South, Stewart, Chatham and subantarctic Islands from about Mangamuka Forest south. Becoming more common heading south and reaching sea level in the more southerly part of its range

Habitat

Coastal to subalpine (montane to subalpine in northern part of range). Common in mixed forest, subalpine scrub and tussock grassland.

Features

Rhizome short-creeping; scales to 16 × 2 mm wide, lanceolate, acute or acuminate, brown some bicolorous, entire. Fronds dimorphic, erect, 0.08—1.0 m long, 45-220 mm wide, widest mid frond; fertile fronds longer and more erect than sterile fronds. Stipes 20-600 mm (stipes up to 180 mm for plants growing in tussock communities, 150-250 for plants growing in open, shaded forest, and up to 0.6 m where plants are competing with a dense ground layer in the forest); stipes of sterile fronds shorter than stipes of fertile fronds, 1-4 mm diameter, stramineous to dark brown, becoming darker reddish brown towards the base; stipes scaly when young, often glabrous at maturity; scales 2-10 mm long, 0.5-1.5 mm wide, mostly lanceolate, brown, reddish brown, or somewhat bicolorous with paler margins, entire. Lamina ovate or lanceolate, dark olive green at maturity, 1-pinnate, 2—15 pairs of pinnae (plants suboptimal sites occasionally have as few as 1 terminal and 2 lateral, membranous pinnae), fertile laminae with more pinnae than sterile laminae. Rachis and costae dark, reddish, or pale brown (usually pale for specimens from open tussock communities), often blotchy; with sparse to numerous scales (fertile lamina with a more scaly rachis) and some small irregular hairs; scales variable in size, shape, and colour, 3.0-10.0 × 0.5-1.0 mm, linear to lanceolate, attenuate, more or less entire; conspicuous abaxial costal scales 2.0-3.5 mm long, c. 1 mm wide, of small narrow linear cells, lanceolate, attenuate, shiny dark reddish brown, concolorous or sometimes slightly bicolorous with paler margins (but lacking a "black-spot"), more or less entire. Sterile pinnae 25-150 × 10-35 mm, oblong-lanceolate, apices obtuse to acute, rounded or truncate at rachis; shortly petiolate at base of lamina, basiscopically adnate towards apex; coriaceous in robust specimens to almost membranous in small plants; margins toothed and sometimes crenate; veins simple or once-furcate; small toothed scales often extending on to lower surface of pinnae; basal pinnae as long or slightly 10-35 mm, oblong-lanceolate, apices obtuse to acute, rounded or truncate at rachis; shortly petiolate at base of lamina, basiscopically adnate towards apex; coriaceous in robust specimens to almost membranous in small plants; margins toothed and sometimes crenate; veins simple or once-furcate; small toothed scales often extending on to lower surface of pinnae; basal pinnae as long or slightly shorter than middle pinnae, rarely less than half their length, more obtuse, often reflexed, auricles and auriculate pinnae bases absent; terminal pinna usually longer and acutely pointed. Fertile pinnae 20.0- 75.0 × 2.0-4.5 mm, linear, shortly petiolate at base of lamina, becoming basiscopically adnate towards apex; basal pinnae usually not reduced; sori covering under surface except at apices; indusium brown, laciniate or entire; spores 56-70 × 39-52 µm.

Similar Taxa

Parablechnum procerum is most similar to P. montanum, with which it sometimes hybridises. From P. montanum P. procerum is distinguished by the usually fewer, blunter pinnae, basal pinnae which are not reduced. The pinnae of Parablechnum montanum are usually attenuate and falcate, and "black-spot" scales are present.

Flowering

Not applicable - spore producing

Flower Colours

No Flowers

Fruiting

Not applicable - spore producing

Propagation Technique

Easily grown from fresh spores and whole plants. transplants well and flourishes in most conditions but does best in a shaded site, planted in a fertile, permanently moist soil. Dislikes drought.

Threats

Not Threatened

Chromosome No.

2n = 112

Endemic Taxon

Yes

Endemic Genus

No

Endemic Family

No

TAXONOMIC INFORMATION

Perrie et al. (2014) advocated for a broadened circumscription of Blechnaceae whereby a number of genera traditionally recognized as distinct from Blechnum were merged within it. However, this view has not met with universal acceptance (see Gasper et al. 2016) and does not seem to be followed worldwide (PPG 2016). From a New Zealand perspective the decision to merge Doodia in Blechnum, and rejection of Diploblechnum has not been universally accepted either e.g., Wilcox & Warden (2017), and as such it is considered appropriate to follow world opinion and accept the taxonomy of Gasper et al. (2016) and recommendations of the PPG (2016). See also the comments by Pyner (2017).

Fact Sheet Citation

Please cite as:  de Lange, P.J. (Year at time of Access): Parablechnum procerum Fact Sheet (content continuously updated). New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora_details.aspx?ID=2072 (Date website was queried)

 

       

Attribution

Fact sheet prepared for NZPCN by P.J. de Lange (7 March 2012). Description adapted Chambers & Farrant (1998)

References and further reading

Chambers, T.C.; Farrant, P.A. 1998: The Blechnum procerum (“capense”) (Blechnaceae) complex in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 36: 1-19.

Gasper, A.L.; de Oliveira Dittrich, V.A.; Smith A.R.; Salino, A. 2016:  A classification for Blechnaceae (Polypodiales: Polypodiopsida): New genera, resurrected names, and combinations. Phytotaxa 275: 191–227.

Perrie, L.R.; Wilson, R.K.; Shepherd, L.D.; Ohlsen, D.J.; Batty, E.L.; Brownsey, P.J.; Bayly, M.J. 2014: Molecular phylogenetics and generic taxonomy of Blechnaceae ferns. Taxon 63(4): 745-758.

PPG 1: The Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group 2016: A community-derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns. Journal of Systematics and Evolution 54: 563-603.

Pyner, T. 2017: A new classification of Blechnum. British Pteridological Society. https://ebps.org.uk/new-classification-blechnum/

Wilcox, M.; Warden, J. 2017: Botany of Hillsborough coast bush reserves, Manukau Harbour, Auckland. Auckland Botanical Society Journal 72: 32-46.

 

This page last updated on 5 Sep 2017